There’s no substitute for experience

John Batten explores what it takes to give your business the competitive advantage

By John Batten | Published:  01 September, 2017

Our industry is in a constant state of flux; new technology and changing customer behaviour are impacting our organisations, and ultimately the financial success of your business.

Our industry is in a constant state of flux; new technology and changing customer behaviour are impacting our organisations, and ultimately the financial success of your business. This pace of change can sometimes feel overwhelming, right? So far, nothing that you haven’t heard before. But what if I was to tell you there’s a straightforward, inexpensive, and effective way of gaining a competitive advantage. Interested? The answer is simple. Read on.
Read on. Read on.


Learn faster!
There are plenty of wise words from business theorists who suggest that “The ability to learn faster than your competitors may be the only sustainable competitive advantage. ”However, acquiring radically different skills whilst continuing to perform your job is often met with resistance; too difficult, too expensive, too time consuming. It also requires a willingness to become a novice again which in itself can be off-putting. It’s when things appear too difficult that I turn to Dr Seuss, that well known children's author, of ‘Cat in the Hat’ fame ,as he often has words of wisdom that sit well with my own take on business best practice for automotive repairers. I call it Diagnostics by Dr Seuss!


It’s better to know how to learn than to know
Kids are relentless in their urge to learn and master new things. As parents we encourage our children to learn, experience and be curious and yet these are traits, as adults, we often don’t practice ourselves. As business owners and technicians we need to become more curious. Curiosity drives us to try something until we can do it, or think about something until we understand it. Retaining this childhood drive can make us great learners.

We need to emulate childhood qualities; we need to learn the art of learning. This can start, very simply, by asking “How…? Why…? I wonder…?” Then take just one step to answer the question you’ve asked yourself; read technical information, watch a video, join the right discussion forum, try that extra test.


The more that you read, the more things you’ll know. The more that you learn the more places you’ll go
In our industry there is no shortage of information: Manufacturer technical information, technical bulletins, videos, articles and training courses. All of it  is very accessible and a lot of it free or low-cost. But ask yourself this question: how often are they used as a standard part of the diagnostic process in your business? When it comes to the art of diagnosis I’m a huge fan of process. Reading plays an enormous part in this as we can’t fix it if we don’t understand it.

One of my clients recently posted a fix in our forum, showing just how important the art of reading in diagnosis is.
Jay is 21 years old and is an enthusiastic young technician. While he may not regularly pull a fix from thin air, as a more ‘experienced’ technician might, he has learned the value of our 15 step diagnostic process and how research can reduce diagnostic time while increasing the ‘first time fix’ rate.

On this particular day Jay had a Jaguar XF to do battle with, the customer complaint being that the infotainment display was blank. Not perturbed by the lack of familiarity with the brand, Jay set about his process. Having obtained the relevant customer information, confirmed the fault and pulled a bunch of ‘no communication’ network codes, he decided that research was the order of the day. He headed off to the manufacturer’s website to spend £13.20 on the required information to research the network topology.

Jay discovered that the vehicle’s issues were all related to the MOST network. Having read how the MOST network functions (he didn’t know before), he decided that using a MOST loop to bypass the individual control units on the network should be at the top of the many tests on his diagnostic plan.

Jay discovered that when the phone control module was bypassed, communication was restored on the network, which in turn bought the infotainment display to life. Further testing confirmed the phone control module was at fault and its replacement along with the post fix elements in the diagnostic circle, completed the repair.


Sometimes the questions are complicated but the answers are simple
Often, when we become proficient, we rarely want to go back to being seen as not good at other things. We want to play to our strengths. Learning to do something new can be very daunting. Feeling slow, having to ask ‘dumb’ questions, needing step by step guidance again and again. This is so frustrating! The answer is to sit down and get started. Simple does not mean easy.  But if you are determined to show up and do the reading, do the research and do the practice, then you will ultimately succeed.


Process and research vs. experience
To get ahead you need to learn, to learn you need to be curious, to be curious you need to ask questions, to answer the questions you need to read! Repeat continuously, and you’ll have the straightforward, cost-effective competitive advantage I promised at the top of this article, regardless of your experience.


Want to know more?
Find out more about how John can help your technicians succeed and you business achieve its potential by visiting www.autoiq.co.uk or calling Auto iQ on 01604 328 500.

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  • 888... Lucky for some 

    With this month’s focus in Aftermarket on cooling, I thought a look at how technology has affected one of the oldest systems of the internal combustion engine. For illustration, I have chosen the Volkswagen Auto Group’s en888 engine, built in Mexico, Hungary and China hence the 888 insignia; It is their lucky number.

    Its one of Audi’s high-performance variants. Its fitted in my Seat Cupra 2ltr, producing 400bhp with stock mechanicals. So, what are the benefits of advanced cooling systems? Heat derived from combustion, transferred by conduction and convection into cooling and the environment is in effect wasted energy. Controlling and where necessary containing it improves efficiency, not forgetting reductions in emission pollution.

    Efforts
    They have made stringent efforts in the mechanical design of the 888 to achieve savings in efficiency. Reducing engine weight, minimising internal friction, increasing power and torque, current with fuel economy initiatives.

    The cylinder block wall is reduced from 3.5mm to 3.00mm. Internal friction is reduced with smaller main bearing journals, revised timing chain design, incorporating a dual pressure lubricating system. The balance shaft has roller bearings, piston cooling jets further improve thermal stability. The jets have PCM mapped control, while extra oil cooling is provided adjacent the filter housing, close to the activation solenoid and twin oil pressure sensors.

    The engine can theoretically reach Lambda 1 from cold within 20-30 seconds.

    Further technical innovations include reduced oil level, reduced tension force in the auxiliary chain mechanism, down shifting achieved with variable valve lift and twin scroll direct mount turbo design.

    Advances
    You will now appreciate that it is no longer possible to separate mechanical design, power delivery, emissions, and all-round efficiency, treating cooling as an afterthought.

    Take the cylinder block design, which possibly has the biggest advances reserved within the cylinder head and coolant control module (water pump). The exhaust manifold is housed completely within the cylinder head casting. This ensures very effective conductance of heat. The emphasis is now on increase, maintain, reduce, thanks to an advanced dual valve PCM controlled coolant control module. The module is mounted at the rear of the engine block, belt-driven with a cooling fan to keep the belt cool.
    By manipulating the two rotary valves, flow and temperature can be effectively controlled within very carefully controlled limits. The rotary valves are manipulated by a PWM 1000hz motor with SENT position feedback (single edge nibble transmission), a method used by the latest air mass meters.

    Heat transfer into and from the turbo is much more efficient due partly to the direct mount and integrated cooling galleries surrounding the exhaust tracts.

    The piston to wall clearance has been increased, with a special coating on the piston thrust side complimenting a direct gudgeon pin to rod contact, the DLC coating removes the need for a bearing bush.

    The cylinder head porting incorporates ignition sequence separation, thus ensuring preceding exhaust pulses do not impede the energy from the current. This in combination with advanced turbine design further improves torque range and downshifting. Cooling control priority is applied to the occupants, then the transmission, further reducing frictional losses.

    Complexity
    Although not directly related to the cooling system, a dual injection system is fitted with its main function being emission reduction. Cold start is provided with three direct injection events, followed by port injection warm up. These systems do not run in tandem. Two thirds of the load range is controlled by port injection, with full load above 4,000 rpm delivered by induction stroke direct fuel delivery.

    From a practical point of view, previous low-tech tasks like replacing coolant components and bleeding now requires electronic support through the serial interface. Using the correct antifreeze is now essential if premature corrosion is to be avoided. As a warning, capillary coolant invasion within wiring looms is well known in some French and GM vehicles, as some of you will be aware.
    It is also worth mentioning that Volkswagen has modified the software controlling cooling in some of their diesel vehicles as part of the emission recall programme.

    Predictably due to their complexity, I can foresee cooling systems being neglected during routine servicing , so expect to see faults as these systems age in the pre-owned market.


  • Well it was like that last year mate! And you passed it then…  

    How many warning lights does it take to create an MOT fail? Put simply, just one - but how many choices do we have?  
        
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  • Part Seven: Electric and hybrid vehicles  

    Over the past few months, we have looked at battery and electric motor technologies of electric and hybrid vehicles,
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    Irrespective of whether a vehicle is powered solely by batteries and an electric motor or whether the vehicle is a hybrid that has the addition of a petrol engine for propulsion and
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    The obvious task of the power electronics system is to control the speed and power of the electric motor so that the vehicle can be driven at the required speed and achieve the required acceleration. As mentioned in a previous article, with Alternating Current (AC) motors the motor speed is regulated by altering the frequency of the 3-phases of alternating current. For light load cruise driving, the current flow provided by the battery pack to the electric motor might only be in the region of a 70 or 80 amps or less, but when the vehicle is being driven under high load conditions, the current requirement will be much higher. Therefore the power electronics can allow higher current flows to be delivered to the electric motor, with some reports quoting as high as 1,800 amps for brief periods on some Tesla vehicles during hard acceleration. However, the power electronics system will monitor currents and temperatures of the electronics, the batteries and the electric motor to ensure that overheating and damage do not occur. As an additional function, the power electronics systems will also control the cooling system (often a liquid cooling system) for the electronics, the batteries and the motor to help maintain acceptable temperatures.
        
    Because most modern electric motors fitted to electric and hybrid vehicles are alternating current motors, the power electronics system must convert the direct current supplied by the battery into alternating current. The power electronics system therefore contains a DC to AC inverter.

    Battery charging from a home charger or remote charging point
    For pure electric vehicles the batteries are re-charged from home based chargers or remote charging points (and this is also true for many later generations of hybrid vehicles). The battery charging must be carefully controlled to prevent overheating and damage, therefore the power electronics system contains a charging control system to regulate the charging rate (voltage and current). Most charging devices provide alternating current, therefore an AC to DC converter forms part of the power electronics system to enable the batteries to receive direct current.
        
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    Battery charging from an engine driven generator
    Most mass produced hybrid vehicles use an internal combustion engine that can propel the vehicle, but the engine also drives a generator that can re-charge the main high voltage batteries. While the engine is running, the power electronics system again controls the charging rate; and again, the output from the generator passes through the AC to DC converter. Note that the power electronics system will be linked to or integrated with the engine management system, which will allow the power electronics to cause the engine to start and generate electricity if the batteries are low on stored electrical energy.
        
    Because the electric motors fitted to electric and hybrid vehicles can usually function also as generators, when the vehicle is decelerating or braking (or coasting), the electric motor can therefore be used to help re-charge the batteries. The electrical output from the motor/generator will vary with speed; therefore the power electronics system must control the charging rate to the batteries. As with home/remote charging and charging with an engine driven generator, because the motor/generator produces an AC current, the generator output must pass through the AC to DC converter.

    12-Volt battery charging
    A 12-Volt electrical system is still used for electric vehicles, but because there is no engine driven alternator, the 12-volt battery is charged using power from the high voltage system. The power electronics system contains a DC to DC converter that converts the high voltage of the main battery pack down to the required voltage for the 12-volt battery. The charging rate for the 12-volt battery is also controlled by the power electronics system.

    Additional functions of the power electronics system
    As mentioned previously, modern electric vehicles (and hybrid vehicles) will be fitted with cooling systems to maintain the temperatures of the batteries, the electronics and the electric motor. Pure electric vehicles are more likely to be fitted with liquid cooling systems due to the higher currents required for the electric motor that is the only source of propulsion, whereas with hybrid vehicles that also use an internal combustion engine to propel the vehicle generally have less powerful electric motors and therefore often make use of air cooling. However, whichever system is used for cooling, the cooling system can be controlled by the power electronics system to regulate the amount of cooling being applied; note that with liquid cooling systems, the control can also apply to the electric cooling pumps that force the coolant to flow around the cooling system.
        
    Another cooling or heating related function of the power electronics system is to ensure that the battery temperature is at the optimum temperature for charging (and for discharging when the battery is providing electrical power). Batteries charge much more efficiently and faster if they are at the optimum temperature of typically between 10 and 30ºC (or slightly higher for some lithium batteries); but the charging rate should be lowered for lower temperatures; and for many consumer type lithium based batteries, charging is not possible below 0ºC.
        
    Because vehicles are equipped with a cooling/heating systems (for driver/passenger comfort as well as for controlling vehicle system temperatures), the power electronics system can switch on an electrical heater (that would form part of the cooling/heating system) when the batteries are being charged. Therefore, if the vehicle is being charged from a domestic based charger or remote charging station and the ambient temperature is low or below freezing, the battery cooling/heating system can raise the battery temperature to ensure charging take place at the fastest possible rate.


  • Tools to survive and thrive 

    My life as a business owner, trainer and technician is an interesting one. I was recently spending some time with a client after a course just shooting the breeze. You know the kind of thing, a cuppa, a cake and an hour just putting the world
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    Wading through treacle
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    The recipe for success
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  • Expert training, Italian style 

    I have just returned from Modena, delivering a two-day advanced technical training seminar to 21 of Italy’s top independent technicians. I was travelling from across Italy and beyond, attending PCB Automotive’s international training programme, focusing on gasoline direct injection and common rail diesel.  

    The essence of the training was the advanced application of Pico oscilloscope to diagnose and gain predictive evidence for a repair solution. The technicians were particularly interested in the techniques of high pressure pump testing pioneered by ADS several years ago.

    Attending the event were diesel and gasoline specialist and Italy’s most respected Bosch trainer. No pressure then! The session began with an explanation of the importance of scope performance when gathering data at high resolution requirements. Acquisition, storage, display, test lead bandwidth and advanced triggering with math channel analysis.

    As expected Bosch had a different political agender towards our pump proof testing. It was however received with enthusiasm and great interest once its accuracy and simplicity was experienced.

    The session on ignition evaluation was of great interest especially when focusing on primary current ramping and slew rate. Further discussion on burn time and slope completed the morning session.

    The four-course lunch was a typical treat of local Italian hospitality and cuisine. The afternoon session included the evaluation of load request with air mass and Lambda response. By comparing response and rise time evaluation it is possible to predict and confirm complex fuel delivery and combustion anomalies.

    A full eight-hour day concluded with hybrid cart racing north of Bologna, followed by the inevitable pizza and Mr Moretti’s finest.

    Data and interest
    Day two and common rail diesel with a similar agenda,   with a strong focus on Math analysis of pressure and volume control against fuel delivery pressure. We have accumulated a vast database of rail pressure profiles, rise and decay times across all diesel manufacturers. This was of great interest to a Bosch pump and injector repair specialist. Approving nods and smiles throughout supported our confidence in this form of diagnostic analysis.

    There was great interest in the examination and influence of rail pressure and air mass response time.  Converting digital air mass into a current profile enabled delegates to understand the speed and simplicity with which a technician can determine the source of an error, either hydraulic or sensor input.
    The day concluded with certificates and a photo session. Teachers usually get apples from students so imagine my joy with a bottle of wine and finest olive oil.

    With a 6.30am flight in the morning and 50 kilometres back to Bologna, it was a very nice gesture from Luca my host to take me for a special evening meal at a villa outside Modena.

    I found it intriguing to be asked by several of the delegates, with my international training experience, where the best technicians are to be found. I responded including them with the very best, not just because of their technical fluency, but especially their mutual respect and co-operation with each other, sadly lacking with some in the UK.

    Using Math
    To conclude let’s look at an example of using Math to predict hydro mechanical function against rail pressure.
    The system example; Bosch cp1h, volume control single point, solenoid injectors. Sample taken from stable idle, part load snap open throttle, return to idle.

    Channel a blue;
    Rail pressure profile idle, snap open, rtn to idle.

    Channel b red;  
    Volume control valve ground duty control

    Channel c green;  
    Volume control valve, current vis rail pressure

    Channel d black;  
    Air mass meter profile vis rail pressure

    Math Channel purple;  
    Math duty volume control

    The focus of this analysis was to establish the rail pressure hydraulic response time against air mass load signal, expressing the primary control device, volume, as current and math duty conversion.

    To understand the values in this test enables an unequalled understanding of the systems capability in delivering fuel vis time.
    The next challenge is to sync a second 4 channel scope monitoring compression using WPS, with the 4-stroke cycle overlay, noting the secondary pressure increase when fuel is injected. Then we really are ahead of the curve.




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